Chemistry Molecules Bonds Covalent


- Info:

- Covalent bond is formed when two electron clouds of two atoms overlap which creates structure we call molecule.

- What happens is that actually both electrons now happily travel around both atoms.

- We say that atoms share an electron pair.


- Example:

- For example two hydrogen atoms can create H2 molecule.

- Electron of each hydrogen atom is attracted to proton of the other hydrogen atom.

Each electron wants to get as close as possilbe to the proton of the other atom draging it's own proton behind.

- On the other hand two protons repulse each other.

Result is that each proton acts as if it is draging it's one electron away from the proton of the other atom.

- At some distance between protons, force with which electrons are draging their protons toward eachother becomes the

same as the force with which protons repulse each other whixh results in a stable covalent bond.

- Symbol for such structure contains single line connecting two hydrogen atom, where this line represent electron pair

shared between two hydrogen atoms.


- Following symbol represents hydrogen cyanide molecule, in which carbon atom (C) chares three pairs of electrons with

nitrogen atom (N) and one pair of electrons with hydrogen atom (H).