GENETICS Terms ATP

 

- Info:

- ATP stands for Adenosine-5'-TriPhosphat.

- ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism.

- ATP is made from ADP - Adenosine DiPhosphate or AMP - Adenosine MonoPhosphate

When ATP is used it is converted back into these precursors and energy is released.

- Living things use ATP like a battery.

- ATP powers needed reactions by losing one of its phosphorous groups to form ADP.

- In mitochondria food energy is then used to convert the ADP back to ATP.

- This tutorial is based on:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate

http://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/Chemistry/MOTM/atp/atp1.htm

 

- How it works:

- ATP works by losing the endmost phosphate group by bonding with water in the process known as hidrolysis.

- This process releases 12,000 calories of energy.

- ATP does that when instructed to do so by an enzyme.

- This reaction releases a lot of energy, which the organism can then use to build proteins, contact muscles, etc.

- The reaction product is ADP - adenosine diphosphate, and the phosphate group either ends up as

HPO4 - orthophosphate or attached to another molecule (e.g. an alcohol).

 

ATP + H2O ADP + HPO4

 

- More energy can be extracted by removing a second phosphate group to produce AMP - adenosine monophosphate.

 

- Structure:

- ATP molecule is composed of three components.

- At the centre is a sugar molecule ribose (magenta), the same sugar that forms the basis of DNA.

- Attached to one side of this is a adenine base (red), which is one of the four bases found in DNA.

- Attached to the other side of the sugar is string of phosphate groups (blue), which are the key to the activity of ATP.