· GENETICS – Terms – ATP
stands for Adenosine-5'-TriPhosphat.
transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism.
- ATP is
made from ADP - Adenosine DiPhosphate or AMP - Adenosine MonoPhosphate
is used it is converted back into these precursors and energy is released.
things use ATP like a battery.
- ATP powers
needed reactions by losing one of its phosphorous groups to form ADP.
mitochondria food energy is then used to convert the ADP back to ATP.
- This tutorial is based
- ATP works
by losing the endmost phosphate group by bonding with water in the process
known as hidrolysis.
process releases 12,000 calories of energy.
- ATP does
that when instructed to do so by an enzyme.
reaction releases a lot of energy, which the organism can then use to build
proteins, contact muscles, etc.
reaction product is ADP - adenosine diphosphate, and the phosphate group either
ends up as
orthophosphate or attached to another molecule (e.g. an alcohol).
ATP + H2O ® ADP + HPO4
energy can be extracted by removing a second phosphate group to produce AMP -
molecule is composed of three components.
- At the
centre is a sugar molecule ribose (magenta), the same sugar that forms the
basis of DNA.
to one side of this is a adenine base (red), which is one of the four bases
found in DNA.
to the other side of the sugar is string of phosphate groups (blue), which are
the key to the activity of ATP.