GENETICS Terms Amino Acid

 

- Info:

- Amino acids are molecules used as building blocks for creating proteins.

- Human body contains 20 types of amino acids which can be placed in many different orders to form proteins.

- There are about 100 different types of amino acids in nature.

- 3D interactive models can be found at http://www.biotopics.co.uk/JmolApplet/aminoacidcategories110.html.

- Models in following tutorials were taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:L-valine-3D-balls.png.

- This tutorial is based on:

http://science.howstuffworks.com/cellular-microscopic-biology/cell3.htm.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AminoAcidball.svg

 

- Structure:

- Every amino acid contains:

- Amino Group (NH2)

- Carboxyl Group (COOH) that is acidic

- Alpha Carbon which connects NH2, COOH and side chain.

- Side Chain (R) which defines the type of amino acid

 

- Amino Acid Examples:

- In Alanine additional groupe is made of CH3 molecule.

- In Glycine additional groupe is made of single hidrogene atom.

 

 

- Non-essential:

- Non-essential amino acids are amino acids that your body can create out of other chemicals found in your body.

 

    

Name

Symbol

Letter

synthesized from

 

Alanine

ala

A

pyruvic acid

 

Arginine

arg

R

glutamic acid

 

Asparagine

asn

N

aspartic acid

 

Aspartic acid

asp

D

oxaloacetic acid

 

Cysteine

cys

C

homocysteine from methionine

 

Glutamic acid

glu

E

oxoglutaric acid

 

Glutamine

gln

Q

glutamic acid

 

Glycine

gly

Y

serine and threonine

 

Proline

pro

P

glutamic acid

 

Serine

ser

S

glucose

 

Tryosine

tyr

Y

phenylalanine

 

- Assential:

- Essential amino acids cannot be created by our body, and therefore the only way to get them is through food.

 

    

Name

Symbol

Letter

 

Histidine

his

H

 

Isoleucine

ile

I

 

Leucine

leu

L

 

Lysine

lys

K

 

Methionine

met

M

 

Phenylalanine

phe

F

 

Threonine

thr

T

 

Tryptophan

trp

W

 

Valine

val

V