· GENETICS – Terms – RNA
- RNA stands for RiboNucleic Acid.
- RNA is very similar to DNA with following differences:
- RNA is single-stranded, while DNA is double-stranded.
- RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type
of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom)
- RNA has the base uracil instead thymine that is present in DNA.
- RNA is synthesised from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases in a
process called transcription.
- RNA is used to synthesis proteins.
- Messenger RNA, also known as mRNA, carries information from DNA to
structures called ribosomes.
Ribosomes are made from proteins and ribosomal RNAs, which come
together to form a molecular machine that can
read messenger RNAs and translate the information they carry into